Fitness Feud – Diabetes Symptoms

Let’s Play the Feud! Top 10 answers are on the board.

Click on the picture to get the answers

What are the symptoms of type 1 diabetes?

Type 1 diabetes often appears suddenly. The following are the most common symptoms of type 1 diabetes. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:

  • High levels of sugar in the blood when tested
  • High levels of sugar in the urine when tested
  • Unusual thirst
  • Frequent urination
  • Weight loss despite extreme hunger
  • Blurred vision
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Extreme weakness and fatigue
  • Irritability and mood changes

In children, symptoms may be similar to those of having the flu.

The symptoms of type 1 diabetes may resemble other conditions or medical problems. Always consult your doctor for a diagnosis.

What are the symptoms of type 2 diabetes?

The following are the most common symptoms of type 2 diabetes. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:

  • Frequent cuts, bruises, or infections that do not heal easily
  • High levels of sugar in the blood when tested
  • High levels of sugar in the urine when tested
  • Unusual thirst
  • Frequent urination
  • Weight loss despite extreme hunger
  • Blurred vision
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Extreme weakness and fatigue
  • Irritability and mood changes
  • Dry, itchy skin
  • Tingling or loss of feeling in the hands or feet

Like the HealthAlliance Hospital Facebook page to receive Facebook updates about staying healthy.

Find a physician

Isn’t Caroline Pretty in Pink?

Our Mammography staff and Caroline want to remind you that a mammogram is the best way to detect breast cancer.

Breast Cancer Statistics 

  • Excluding cancers of the skin, breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women
  • American Cancer Society (ACS) estimates for 2012 include 226,870 new cases of invasive breast cancer being diagnosed in women in the U.S. In addition, carcinoma in situ (cancer that has not spread beyond the original site) will be responsible for 63,300 new cases this year. Of these, about 85 percent will be ductal carcinoma in situ.
  • In 2012, it is estimated that 2,190 men will be diagnosed with breast cancer.
  • Year 2012 estimates include 39,920 deaths occurring from breast cancer in the U.S. alone. This includes approximately 39,510 women and 410 men.
  • According to ACS, the breast cancer death rate in women age 50 and older in the U.S. has been falling by about 2 percent per year, since 1990.
  • Breast cancer ranks second among cancer deaths in women after lung cancer.

What is cancer?

The body is made up of various kinds of cells, which normally divide in an orderly way to produce more cells only when they are needed. Cancer is a group of diseases – more than 100 types – that occur when cells become abnormal and divide without control or order.

What is a tumor?

When cells divide when new cells are not needed, too much tissue is formed. This mass of extra tissue, called a tumor, can be benign or malignant.

  • Benign tumors:
    • Are not cancer
    • Can usually be removed
    • Are rarely a threat to life
    • Do not come back in most cases
    • Do not spread to other parts of the body and the cells do not invade other tissues
  • Malignant tumors:
    • Are cancer
    • May be a threat to life
    • Can invade and damage nearby tissues and organs
    • Metastasize – cancer cells can break away from a malignant tumor and enter the bloodstream or lymphatic system to form secondary tumors in other parts of the body

Risk factors that cannot be changed:

  • Gender. Breast cancer occurs nearly 100 times more often in women than in men.
  • Race or ethnicity. It has been noted that white women develop breast cancer slightly more often than African-American women. However, African-American women tend to die of breast cancer more often. This is may be partly due to the fact that African-American women often develop a more aggressive type of tumor, although why this happens is not known. The risk for developing breast cancer and dying from it is lower in Hispanic, Native American, and Asian women.
  • Aging. Two out of three women with invasive cancer are diagnosed after age 55.
  • Personal history of breast cancer
  • Previous breast irradiation
  • Family history and genetic factors. Having a close relative, such as a mother or sister, with breast cancer increases the risk. This includes changes in certain genes such as BRCA1, BRCA2, and others.
  • Benign breast disease. Women with certain benign breast conditions (such as hyperplasia or atypical hyperplasia) have an increased risk of breast cancer. 
  • Dense breast tissue. Breast tissue may look dense or fatty on a mammogram. Older women with dense breast tissue are at increased risk.
  • Diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure. Women who took this drug while pregnant (to lower the chance of miscarriage) are at higher risk. The possible effect on their daughters is under study.
  • Early menstrual periods. Women whose periods began early in life (before age 12) have a slightly higher risk of breast cancer.
  • Late menopause. Women are at a slightly higher risk if they began menopause later in life (after age 55).

The most frequently cited lifestyle-related risk factors:

  • Not having children, or having your first child after age 30
  • Recent use (within 10 years) of oral contraceptives
  • Physical inactivity
  • Alcohol use (more than one drink per day)
  • Long-term, post-menopausal use of combined estrogen and progestin (HRT)*
  • Weight gain and obesity, especially after menopause

Environmental risk factors:

  • Exposure to pesticides, or other chemicals, is currently being examined as a possible risk factor.

Treatment may include:

  • Radiation therapy is a process that precisely sends high levels of radiation directly to the cancer cells. Radiation done after surgery can kill cancer cells that may not be seen during surgery. Radiation may also be done:
    • Before surgery to shrink the tumor
    • In combination with chemotherapy
    • As a palliative treatment (therapy that relieves symptoms, such as pain, but does not alter the course of the disease)

    Radiation therapy is usually delivered by external beam radiation (also called external beam therapy). The machine is controlled by the radiation therapist. Since radiation is used to kill cancer cells and to shrink tumors, special shields may be used to protect the tissue surrounding the treatment area. Radiation treatments are painless and usually last a few minutes.

  • Chemotherapy is the use of anticancer drugs to kill cancerous cells. In most cases, chemotherapy works by interfering with the cancer cell’s ability to grow or reproduce. Different groups of drugs work in different ways to fight cancer cells. The oncologist will recommend a treatment plan for each individual.
  • Hormone therapy, in some cases, can kill cancer cells, slow the growth of cancer cells, or stop cancer cells from growing. Hormones help some types of cancer cells to grow, such as certain breast cancers and prostate cancer. Hormone therapy as a cancer treatment involves taking substances to interfere with the activity of hormones or to stop the production of hormones. Before you begin hormone therapy, your doctor will do a hormone receptor test. This lab test is performed on the cancerous tissue to see if estrogen and progesterone receptors are present.
  • Adjuvant therapy. This is radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or hormone therapy given after surgery for the removal of cancer. It is used to kill any cancer cells that cannot be seen.

Breast Cancer in Men

Breast cancer in men is rare – less than one percent of all breast carcinomas occur in men. Consider the latest statistics available from the American Cancer Society:

  • The American Cancer Society estimates that in 2012 about 2,190 new cases of invasive breast cancer will be diagnosed among men in the U.S.
  • Breast cancer is about 100 times more common among women.
  • Estimates for 2012 also indicate that about 410 men in the U.S. will die from breast cancer.
  • The average age at diagnosis is about 68, although men of all ages can develop breast cancer.

What are risk factors for breast cancer in men?

  • Age
  • Radiation exposure
  • Estrogen treatment
  • Diseases associated with hyperestrogenism, such as cirrhosis or Klinefelter syndrome
  • Heavy alcohol intake
  • Obesity

Also, there are definite familial tendencies for men developing breast cancer:

  • An increased incidence is seen in men who have a number of female relatives with breast cancer.

What are the symptoms of breast cancer in men?

  • Breast lumps
  • Nipple inversion
  • Nipple discharge (sometimes bloody)
  • A pain or pulling sensation in the breast
  • Skin or nipple changes such as dimpling, puckering, redness, or scaling

What are the similarities of breast cancer in men to breast cancer in women?

Overall survival is similar to that of women with breast cancer. The impression that male breast cancer has a poorer prognosis may be due to the fact that it’s often diagnosed at a later stage. The primary standard treatment is a modified radical mastectomy, just as it is with female breast cancer.

Hit Me With Your Best Shot

Getting vaccinated against the flu not only protects you, but it also helps to keep the flu from spreading to high risk people you come in contact with.

Getting a Flu Vaccination

The flu (influenza) is caused by a virus that is easily spread. And it can be more dangerous than you think. A flu vaccine is your best chance to avoid the flu. The vaccine is given in the form of a shot (injection) or a nasal spray. It’s best to get vaccinated each fall, before flu season starts. This can be done at your doctor’s office or a health clinic. Drugstores, senior centers, and workplaces often offer flu vaccinations, too. If you have questions about getting vaccinated, ask your healthcare provider.

Flu Facts:

  • The flu vaccine will not give you the flu.
  • The flu is caused by a virus. It can’t be treated with antibiotics.
  • The flu can be life-threatening, especially for people in high-risk groups. About 36,000 people die of complications from the flu each year.
  • Influenza is not the same as “stomach flu,” the 24-hour bug that causes vomiting and diarrhea. This is most likely due to a GI (gastrointestinal) infection—not the flu.

Flu Symptoms

Flu symptoms tend to come on quickly. Fever, headache, fatigue, cough, sore throat, runny nose, and muscle aches are symptoms of the flu. Children may have upset stomach or vomiting, but adults usually don’t. Some symptoms, such as fatigue and cough, can last a few weeks.

How a Flu Vaccine Protects You

There are many strains (types) of flu viruses. Medical experts predict which 3 strains are most likely to make people sick each year. Flu vaccines are made from these strains. With the shot, inactivated (“killed”) flu viruses are injected into your body. With the nasal spray, live and weakened viruses are sprayed into your nose. The viruses in both vaccines cannot make you sick. But they do prompt the body to make antibodies to fight these flu strains. If you’re exposed to the same strains later in the flu season, the antibodies will fight off the virus. Your healthcare provider can tell you which type of flu vaccine is right for you.

Who Should Get the Flu Vaccination?

Almost anyone can (and should) get vaccinated, especially people in the following high-risk groups:

  • Persons 50 and older
  • Babies and children 6 months and older (ask your healthcare provider if your child should receive the vaccine)
  • Children on long-term aspirin therapy
  • People with chronic health problems (such as diabetes, chronic lung disease, asthma, or heart failure)
  • People receiving certain medical treatments
  • People who live in nursing homes or other long-term care facilities
  • Pregnant women
  • Caregivers and household contacts of babies younger than 6 months
  • Healthcare workers 

Who Can’t Get a Flu Vaccination?

  • Babies younger than 6 months
  • People severely allergic to eggs
  • People who have had bad reactions to flu vaccination (including Guillain-Barré syndrome)
  • A person who has a high fever (the vaccine can be given after the fever goes away).

Types of Flu Vaccines:

Two main types of flu vaccines are available, injection (shot) and nasal spray. Talk to your doctor about which type is right for you.

  • Injection (shot):
    • The regular flu shot is for persons 6 months and older. It is injected with a needle into the muscle of the upper arm.
    • The high dose shot is only for persons 65 years and older. It is also injected into the muscles of the upper arm. This vaccine has four times the amount of killed viruses than the regular flu shot. This helps the body produce more antibodies, which is important for older persons whose immune systems are weaker.
    • The intradermal shot is injected into the skin with a much smaller needle than for the regular flu shot. This vaccine has 40% less the amount of killed viruses than the regular flu shot. But this is just as effective as the regular flu shot in prompting the body to produce antibodies.
  • Nasal spray: This is a vaccine that’s sprayed into the nose. It is available only for healthy persons ages 5 through 49. It should not be used for pregnant women.

Trouble Sleeping? 10 Tips to Sleep Like Rip Van Winkle


  1. If your worries don’t let you sleep, write them down in a diary. Then close it, and go to bed.
  2. Avoid or limit naps.
  3. Use your bed only for sleep and sex.
  4. Avoid or limit caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol. They can keep you awake at night. Alcohol may help you fall asleep at first, but your sleep will not be restful.
  5. Don’t spend too much time in bed trying to fall asleep. If you can’t fall asleep, get up and do something until you become tired and drowsy.
  6. Stress, anxiety, and body tension may keep you awake at night. To unwind before bedtime, try a warm bath, meditation, or yoga. Try Deep breathing. Take a slow, deep breath. Hold it for 5 counts. Then breathe out slowly through your mouth. Keep doing this until you feel relaxed. Also try progressive muscle relaxation. Tense and then relax the muscles in your body as you breathe deeply. Start with your feet and work up your body to your neck and face.
  7. Make sure the room is not too hot or too cold. If it’s not dark enough, an eye mask can help. If it’s noisy, try using earplugs.
  8. Think of going to bed as relaxing and enjoyable. Sleep will come sooner.
  9. Have a bedtime routine to let your body and mind know when it’s time to sleep.
  10. Exercise regularly. It may help you reduce stress. Avoid strenuous exercise for two to four hours before bedtime.

If you have sleep problems that last longer than a few weeks, you may need a sleep study.

HealthAlliance Hospital has two doctors on staff that see patients at the Mass Lung and Allergy Sleep Center in Leominster to diagnose and treat sleep disorders like sleep apnea, insomnia, snoring, sleep deprivation, and restless legs syndrome which affect millions of Americans.


If you are having trouble sleeping contact one of our board certified sleep medicine physicians:

Dr. Payam Aghassi
Dr. Aghassi’s Web Page
Dr. Inna Ketsler
Dr. Ketsler’s Web Page


This is Your Brain on Food

Certain foods increase natural feel good drugs known as neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine in your brain. These are critical to emotional wellbeing.

The following foods naturally increase your levels of neurotransmitters:

  • Bananas
  • Almonds
  • Lima beans
  • Chicken
  • Turkey
  • Pork
  • Shrimp
  • Tuna
  • Apples
  • Watermelon
  • Pineapples
  • Seaweed
  • Beets
  • Spinach
  • Milk
  • Cheese
  • Yogurt
  • Eggs
  • Whole wheat
  • Avocado
  • Dark chocolate

The following foods can reduce neurotransmitter levels:

  • Foods high in refined sugar
  • Foods high in saturated fats
  • Foods high in cholesterol

Studies show that exercise can also increase the amount of neurotransmitters

 Like our Facebook page to receive Facebook updates about health.

Hantavirus and How to Safely Clean Up After Mice

First identified in the early 1990s, HPS(Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome) is a very rare disease caused by becoming infected with the hantavirus. Since then just over 500 cases have been reported in over 30 states from all regions of the United States except for Alaska and Hawaii.

How do people get HPS?

The most common way people get HPS is when they breath in hantaviruses. This can happen when rodent urine and droppings that contain a hantavirus are stirred up into the air. People can also become infected when they touch mouse or rat urine, droppings, or nesting materials that contain the virus and then touch their eyes, nose, or mouth. They can also get HPS from a mouse or rat bite. It cannot be spread from person to person.

Do not sweep or vacuum up mouse or rat urine, droppings, or nests. This will cause the virus particles to go into the air, where they can be breathed in. 

How to clean up mouse and rat urine and droppings:

  • Wear rubber or plastic gloves
  • Make bleach solution by mixing 1½ cups of household bleach with 1 gallon of water. Smaller amounts can be made with 1 part bleach and 9 parts water.
  • Spray urine and droppings with the mixture of bleach and water. Make sure you get the urine and droppings very wet. Let it soak for 5 minutes.
  • Use a paper towel to wipe up the urine or droppings
  • Throw the paper towel in the garbage
  • Mop or sponge the area with the bleach solution
  • Spray gloved hands with the bleach solution before taking them off
  • Wash hands with soap and warm water after taking gloves off

How to clean up a dead mouse or rat in a snap trap and how to clean up a rodent nest:

  • Wear rubber or plastic gloves
  • Make bleach solution by mixing 1½ cups of household bleach with 1 gallon of water. Smaller amounts can be made with 1 part bleach and 9 parts water.
  • Spray the dead mouse, rat, or nest, as well as the surrounding area, with the mixture of bleach and water. Let it soak.
  • Place nesting materials or trap with the dead rodent in a plastic bag. If you plan to reuse the trap, get the mouse or rat out of the trap by holding it over the bag and lifting the metal bar. Let the mouse or rat drop in the bag. Disinfect the trap.
  • Seal the bag. Place the full bag in a second plastic bag. Seal that bag.
  • Throw the bag into a covered trash can that is regularly emptied or contact your state health department for information on other ways to throw away dead mice and rats
  • Spray gloved hands with the bleach solution before taking them off
  • Wash hands with soap and warm water after taking gloves off

What are the symptoms of HPS?

At first people with HPS will have:

  • Fever
  • Severe muscle aches
  • Fatigue

After a few days they will have a hard time breathing. Sometimes people will have headaches, dizziness, chills, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and stomach pain. Usually, people do not have a runny nose, sore throat, or a rash. If you have these symptoms seek medical attention.


Like our Facebook page to receive Facebook updates about health.

Saddle Up You Desk Jockeys

Spending long hours at your desk can harm your health. There’s growing evidence that the more time you spend sitting each day, the greater your risk of heart disease. Your spine, shoulders and hips may also suffer.

“Sit on an exercise ball at your desk instead of a chair,” says Kristen Norton, Physical Therapist, HealthAlliance Hospital. “This will strengthen your core abdominal and back muscles, and improve your posture. Some schools are even choosing to replace chairs with exercise balls in the classroom. Take a break and do some exercises on the ball. To increase the challenge, keep your eyes closed when you’re doing them because with your eyes closed your muscles will work harder to keep you balanced.”

“It’s important to get up every couple of hours and move around. Exercise not only helps with how you feel physically, but it also improves your mind and your memory.”

Kristen is right, studies show that exercise stimulates brain cell growth, and makes you more efficient at work. Exercise actually makes you smarter. 

“It may not be possible for you to go to the gym at lunchtime, but making small changes to your daily work routine can help protect your health.”

“You should take at least 6000 steps per day, so take a walk. Get a pedometer to count steps.”

Thank you Kristen for the tips on staying healthy.

If you have back problems or other health concerns please consult with your physician before performing these exercises.

Like the HealthAlliance Hospital Facebook page to receive Facebook updates about staying healthy.

Bugs Was Onto Something With The Carrots


Steve Guerin, Manager of Food Services -
“We care about your health and carrots are definitely good for you. You should try to sneak vegetables into every meal. Put some shreaded carrots on your chicken sandwich for example. Here are a few recipes that use carrots, some of which we use here in the hospital cafe. For example we serve different types of Jicama Slaw, including the Jicama Carrot Slaw, and they are quite popular. We have given out the recipes and people have then commented about them on the hospital Facebook page saying they made it and liked it.”

Jicama Carrot Slaw
(recipe courtesy of Food Network)

  • 1 medium carrot
  • 3 tablespoons lime juice
  • 3 tablespoons finely chopped dates or currants
  • 2 tablespoons vegetable oil
  • 1 pound peeled jicama
  • salt
  • mint


  • Combine lime juice and finely chopped dates or currants with the vegetable oil in a large bowl
  • Let stand 10 minutes
  • Cut the carrot and peeled jicama into matchsticks
  • Add the vegetables to the date mixture
  • Season with salt and toss to coat
  • Stir in some torn mint

Spicy Carrot Soup
(recipe courtesy of

  • 8 carrots, roughly chopped
  • 5 celery sticks, cut into pieces
  • 2 cloves of garlic, chopped
  • 1 large onion, chopped
  • 4 cups of water
  • 1 tablespoon of olive oil
  • 1 teaspoon of curry powder
  • Salt


  • Heat up the olive oil in a frying pan
  • Fry the chopped garlic and chopped onion for 4-5 minutes
  • Add a teaspoon of curry powder and then stir
  • Add all of the remaining ingredients except the salt and cook until the vegetables are tender
  • Mix in a blender until the soup is smooth
  • Add salt to taste

Peanut Carrots
(recipe courtesy of

  • 2 cup carrots, julienned
  • ½ cup water
  • ¼ tsp salt
  • 2 Tbsp salted peanuts, finely chopped
  • 1 tsp butter
  • 2 tsp sugar
  • Pepper, to taste


  • In a large saucepan bring carrots, water and salt to a boil
  • Reduce heat, cover, and simmer for 10 minutes until tender-crisp
  • Drain, and set aside
  • In small saucepan melt butter
  • Whisk in sugar and pepper and bring to a boil
  • Whisk in peanuts
  • Add to carrots and toss to coat
  • Serve hot

To talk with a HealthAlliance Registered Dietitian about nutrition please call:
(978) 466-2971

To schedule an appointment with a HealthAlliance Registered Dietitian:
Ask your primary care physician to send us a referral.  Once the referral form is received from your physician, a representative from HealthAlliance Central Scheduling will confirm your insurance coverage and call you to schedule a one-hour initial appointment.

Like the HealthAlliance Hospital Facebook page to receive Facebook updates about staying healthy.

Keep Kids Safe Online

In this wired age, kids are much more “connected” with friends – possibly some they’ve never met in person. Teach your child how to use social media responsibly:

  • Set limits for the use of cell phones, the computer, and the Internet. Remind your child that you can check the web browser history and cell phone logs to know how these devices are being used. Use parental controls and passwords to block access to inappropriate websites. Use privacy settings on websites so only your child’s friends can view his or her profile.
  • Explain to your child the dangers of giving out personal information online. Teach your child not to share his or her phone number, address, picture, or other personal details with online friends without your permission.
  • Make sure your child understands that things he or she “says” on the Internet are never private. Posts made on websites like Facebook, MySpace, and Twitter can be seen by people they weren’t intended for. Posts can easily be misunderstood and can even cause trouble for you or your child. Supervise your child’s use of social networks, chat rooms, and email.
  • Comments made online are stored forever, and could be seen much later in time by family or prospective employers that will be searching the internet to find information about them. 

 Bullies Go High-Tech

You can now add bullying to the list of things made easier by technology. Teens today live much of their lives on the Internet. Online bullying, also called cyberbullying, can involve using the Internet, cell phones, or other devices to send text or images that are intended to embarrass or hurt the other person.

Cyberbullying affects almost of all American teens, according to the National Crime Prevention Council. Online bullying has been used for the following purposes:

  • Pretending to be someone else in order to trick someone
  • Telling untrue stories or rumors about another person
  • Sending mean, vulgar, or threatening messages or images
  • Posting someone’s picture without his or her consent
  • Sharing private or sensitive information about a person

So the bullies bent on malice have new weapons. Their nameless nature can make the bullies bolder. The victim can be reached anytime, anywhere. A child can flee a school-yard bully just by leaving, but that won’t work in cyberspace.

Parents often don’t know of the problem because children hesitate to report it. Awareness is the first step, and education about preventing and managing cyberbullying is key.

So what’s a parent to do? It may not be possible to make a child bully-proof, but here are some ideas:

  • Remind your child: Don’t open e-mail or accept instant messages from unknown senders.
  • Block communication with the cyberbully. Delete email messages without reading them. Share your concerns about the bullying with a trusted friend, or better, a parent.
  • Don’t share your phone number, password, or e-mail address.
  • Don’t reply to any bullying or disturbing message.
  • Take a picture of the screen of the e-mail or message and save it as evidence, especially if the message is threatening to you. It will help the authorities in their investigation.
  • Never meet anyone in person that you have only known online.
  • Tell an authority figure at once if a threatening message shows up.
  • Report threatening contact right away to the service provider.
  • Educate yourself about Internet safety and how to deal with cyberbullying at Web sites such as and

A good rule of thumb to remember is that is you wouldn’t say it in person, you probably shouldn’t say it online. Parents need to watch for changes in a child’s behavior that can signal problems like bullying and talk with their parents about their online activities. Keep the Internet a fun and safe environment for your child.  

Like the HealthAlliance Hospital Facebook page to receive Facebook updates about staying safe and healthy.

Don’t Ignore the Signs of a Heart Attack

If you have any of the signs of a heart attack don’t be afraid to call 911 right away, even if you’re not sure you are having a heart attack. Play it safe and get medical help. 

Warning Signs of a Heart Attack:

  • Chest discomfort. Most heart attacks involve discomfort in the center of the chest that lasts more than a few minutes, or that goes away and comes back. It can feel like uncomfortable pressure, squeezing, fullness or pain.
  • Discomfort in other areas of the upper body. Symptoms can include pain or discomfort in one or both arms, the back, neck, jaw, or stomach.
  • Shortness of breath with or without chest discomfort.
  • Other signs may include breaking out in a cold sweat, nausea, paleness, or lightheadedness. 

Note for women: Like men, women most commonly have chest pain or discomfort as a heart attack symptom. But women are somewhat more likely than men to have some of the other common symptoms, particularly shortness of breath, nausea, and vomiting, back pain, or jaw pain.

If You Think Someone Else is Having a Heart Attack: 

1. Call 911 NOW!

  • Call 911 for emergency medical services. Immediate medical care may keep the heart from stopping and may help minimize damage to the heart muscle.

2. Keep the Victim Calm

  • Convince the victim to stop all activities.
  • Reassure the victim to keep him or her calm, so the heart uses less oxygen.
  • Loosen any clothing that may restrict breathing, such as a tie, collar, or belt.

3. Monitor the Victim

  • Perform CPR if necessary. 

Like the HealthAlliance Hospital Facebook page to receive Facebook updates about staying healthy.